Xeromphis spinosa

Botanical Name Xeromphis spinosa
Common Name Arar
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Rubiales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Xeromphis
Species: spinosa
Part used Stem, bark and Fruits.
Medicinal Properties Fruits: alexiteric, aphrodisiac, emetic, carminative, antipyretic, purgative and anodyne. Pulp of fruit bark: anthelmintic and abortifacient.
Medicinal Use Stem bark made into a paste and mixed with goat's milk and country liquour. This is prescribed in rheumatism once daily on an empty stomach. Fruits: cure abscess ulcers, inflammations tumours, skin diseases, pain in muscles, piles, chronic bronchitis, paralysis, leprosy, boils and eruption, brain diseases, asthma, leucoderma and rheumatism. Pulp of fruit bark: bone ache during fever.
ChemistryBark: mannitol and six saponins. Hydrolysis of saponins yielded randialic acid B, from a mixture of aglycones, glucose, xylose and rhamnose. Six saponins are - dumetoronins A, B, C, D, E and F - isolated, all of them contained oleanolic acid as aglycone.
Cultivation NA
Regional HabitatHilly area of Rajasthan. Distribution: Sirohi (Mt. Abu) and Kota districts of Rajasthan.
DescriptionArmed shrubs/small trees with strong straight, nearly opposite decussate spines, coming off from above the branchlets. Bark: dark brown or black, rough. Branches: rigid, horizontal, many of the lateral ones suppressed and very short. Leaves: usually fascicled, stipules ovate, accuminate; petioles densely pubescent; lamina cuneate at base, elliptic to obovate, veins 6-10 pairs, apex obtuse. Flowers: fragrant, solitary or 2 (rarely 3) together, at the ends of short leaf-bearing branchlets; peduncles short; Calyx - tube broadly campanulate, teeth 5, ovate-oblong, sub-acute, often small intermediate teeth between; Corolla - white, turning yellowish, lobes nearly as broad as long, obovate-oblong, apex obtuse, reflexed. Fruits: globose or broadly ovoid, smooth or obscurely longitudinally ribbed, crowned with large calyx-limb and glabrous. Seeds: many, flat, embedded in pulp. Flowers and fruits appears during March to June.