Acinetobacter baumannii

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Acinetobacter baumannii is a pleomorphic aerobic, Gram-negative, nonmotile, obligate coccobacillus. It is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, and commonly isolated from the hospital environment and hospitalized patients. It is an aquatic organism, and is often cultured from liquid medical samples such as respiratory secretions, wounds, and urine.


Aeromonas hydrophila

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Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative and facultative anaerobic bacterium that mainly found in warm climate. It's presence can be noticed in resh, brackish, estuarine, marine, chlorinated and unchlorinated water supplies. It mainly causes diseases in fish and amphibians but human may also get infected through open wounds or by ingestion. It can easily digest gelatin, heamoglobin and elastin from body.


Burkholderia pseudomallei

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It is a gram-negative aerobic, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. This natural saprophyte bacterium mainly found in soil, groundwater, stagnant streams, rice paddies and ponds and infects humans and animals with the direct contact of contaminated source and causes melioidisus. It is also capable of causing diseases in plants.


Campylobacter coli

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C. coli is microaerobic, non-spore forming, gram-negative, oxidase-positive bacteria. They look like spiral shaped rods showing corkscrew-like motion. One unsheathed polar flagella is present at the end (or both ends) of the cell, which gives the bacterium a slender S shape, and this spiral appearance is its most distinguishable feature.


Campylobacter jejuni

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Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic, non-spore forming, gram-negative bacteria of the Campylobacteraceae family. Because of its microaerophilic characteristics the organism requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal growth conditions. This enteric pathogen is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food and water as well as human to human contact.


Citrobacter freundii

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C. freundii are aerobic gram-negative bacteria. Its habitat includes the soil, water, sewage, food, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. C. freundii represents approximately 29% of all opportunistic infections. Therefore, one of the chief reasons many different strains and plasmids of the C. Freundii genome are being sequenced is in order to find antibiotics that can fight these opportunistic infections. C. freundii is responsible for reducing nitrate to nitrite in the environment.


Clostridium perfringens

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Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, pleomorphic, mesophillic bacteria. This non-motile, anaerobic pathogen produces spores that are encapsulated in tissue smears. It is commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals and in the environment in soil, sewage, or dust. This bacterium is important, because it was the primary pathogenic agent that caused many injured soldiers to die from gas gangrene during World War I.


Enterobacter aerogenes

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Enterobacter aerogenes is a gram-negative and opportunistic pathogen bacterium that is small, white in color, and have flagella surrounding it making it motile. . It resides in soil, water, sewage and dairy products and also in a hospital or hospital-type atmospheres. It is classified as facultative anaerobe, which means that it is able to thrive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments.


Escherichia coli

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E. coli is a gram-negative bacteria. They prefer to live at a higher temperature rather than the cooler temperatures. E. coli can be classified into hundreds of strains on the basis of different serotypes. E. coli are not always harmful to human bodies or other animals. Most E. coli live in human intestines, where they help the body to breakdown the food human eat as well as assist with waste processing, vitamin K production, and food absorption.


Francisella tularensis

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F. tularensis is known as arthropod-borne pathogen. It is a small pleiomorphic, non-spore forming, gram-negative coccobacillus that is highly infectious and may be transmitted to humans by a number of different routes, including handling infected animals, ingestion of contaminated food or water or soil, inhalation of infective aerosols and arthropod bites.


Helicobacter pylori

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H. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium commonly found in the mammals stomach specially in humans. The bacteria's shape and the way they move allow them to penetrate the stomach's protective mucous lining, where they produce substances that weaken the lining and make the stomach more susceptible to damage from gastric acids.


Klebsiella pneumoniae

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K. pneumoniae is a gram negative, facultative, anaerobic, ubiquitous bactrium of Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae don't have the characteristic of nitrogen fixation. But, K. pneumoniae can take atmospheric nitrogen gas and reduce it to ammonia and amino acids. Infections with K. pneumoniae are usually hospital-acquired and occur primarily in patients with impaired host. defenses.


Legionella pneumophila

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Legionella pneumophila are gram negative and facultative ntracellular parasite of protozoa. They are widespread in natural water sources and often colonise in manufactured water systems. Diseases caused by L. pneumophila mainly occur in warmer months. People with weak immune system or middle and older aged get infected commonly. Men are affected more frequently than women.


Leptospira interrogans

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It is a gram negative, obligately aerobic, tightly coiled spirochaete and motile bacterium that grows on an optimum temperature of 30 degrees Celsius and an optimum pH of 7.4. Leptospira interrogans species contains over 200 pathogenic serovars. It is found in conditions of high humidity, neutral pH around 7.2, temperatures as low as 13-15 degrees Celsius, and in wet areas such as swamps, bogs, lakes, streams, rivers, and even puddles.


Listeria monocytogenes

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It is a gram positive, motile, nonspore-forming, facultatively intracellular rod- shaped bacterium. It is typically a food-borne organism but it infects food through soil, stale water, waste water, animal feed, and other similar environmental agents. It can grow at low temperatures and under high salt conditions. A wide variety of animal species can be infected by Listeria monocytogenes, including mammals, birds, fish and Crustaceans. It has resistance to freezing, drying, heating and can grow best at 4 degrees Celsius.


Mycobacterium avium

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Mycobacterium avium is a causative agent of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. NTMs are usually more indolent and harder to treat compared to tuberculosis. It founds in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) form that consists of two species: M avium and M intracellulare; because these species are difficult to differentiate. MAC are saprotrophic and ubiquitous organisms present in rivers, soil, birds, farm animals, public pools, hot tubs, and hot water supplies. MAC affects individuals who are immune compromised or have pre-existing pulmonary disease.


Mycobacterium kansasii

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Mycobacterium kansasii is the second most common cause of non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases after MAC. It is a gram-positive, nonmotile, slow-growing, photochromogenic species. It mainly affects people with weakened immune systems, including those with HIV/AIDS the infection is spreaded likely via aerosol route. It is an environmental pathogen that shows intermittent presence in tap water but that is major reservior for this bacteria as well. It is also found in soil, house dust.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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It is a Gram-negative, aerobic rod, free-living, nonspore-forming, motile, opportunistic bacterium pathogen. It is commonly found in soil, water, tubs, inadequately chlorinated swimming pool, sinks, and toilets. It is also observed growing in distilled water on and in medical equipments. It can contaminate devices that are left inside the body, such as respiratory equipment and catheters. It infects immunocompromised individuals and people with cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the type species of its group which contains 12 other members.


Salmonella typhi

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S. typhy is abbreviation of S. enterica subsp enterica serovar typhy. It is a gram negative, motile, noncapsulated, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacterium. It is only found in humans and enters into body through the mouth by the ingestion of contaminated food or water, penetrates the intestinal wall, and multiplies in lymphoid tissue. Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface of the intestine but are normally contained in healthy individuals by the local immune defence mechanisms. It is spread through contamination of water and undercooked food.


Shigella dysenteriae

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S. dysenteriae is a closely relative of E. coli based on DNA- DNA hybridisation studies and it is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating bacterial species. It can easily found in the feces of infected persons. Although it is an ubiquitous bacterium and generally found in contaminated water sources, soiled lines, kitchen waste, dust, . It differs from other members of the family by having genes that code for epithelial cell invasion and the formation of a potent toxin (shiga toxin).


Staphylococcus aureus

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These golden staphs are the Gram-positive, small spherical, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, facultative anaerobe, catalase positive, coagulase positive bacteria. These bacteria are the most dangerous species as they spread by having direct contact with an infected person, by using a contaminated object, or by inhaling infected droplets dispersed by sneezing or coughing. These bacteria are ubiquitous and found in natural environment such as water, soil, aerosol, air droplets.


Vibrio cholerae

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Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobe, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod bacterium that contains a motile polar flagellum. There are over 200 subtypes, and the O1 and O139 serotypes cause epidemic cholera in humans. Vibrios are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism. They are mainly found in aquatic environment both marine and freshwater habitats, faecal water contaminents and often associated with algal blooms.


Yersinia enterocolitica

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These are gram negative, coccoid shaped, non spore-forming, facultative anaerobe bacteria. They are motile at room temperature but non-motile at 37 C.These bacteria are mostly isolated during cold months. Presence of these bacteria can be observed in stream water at reduced temperatures as well as warmer water, sewage sludge, unpasteurized milk and undercooked food products. Occasionally Y. enterocolitica infection occurs after direct or indirect contact with infected animals. Pigs are also a well know reservoir for Y. enterocolitica. Pig feces are a potential mode of direct transmission to farmers.