Coxsackievirus

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Coxsackieviruses are the group of enteroviruses include TypeA, causes herpangina (HMFD) and TypeB, causes epidemic pleurodynia. These viruses mainly infect children below 10 years but children above this group and adults can also got infected due to weak immune system and the contaminated surroundings as they are very contagious, mostly via the saliva, fluid in blisters, nasal secretions and feces. They can spread from person to person, usually on unwashed hands and surfaces contaminated by feces, where they can live for several days.


Echovirus

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Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses. Group A viruses produce a diffuse myositis with acute inflammation and necrosis of fibers of voluntary muscles. Group B viruses produce focal areas of degeneration in the brain, necrosis in the skeletal muscles, and inflammatory changes in the dorsal fat pads, the pancreas and occasionally the myocardium. These viruses are contagious and easily spread from person to person via fecal-oral, oral-oral transmission or by the indirect contact of fomites and contaminated water as well.


Hepatitis A

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Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver, can be caused by various viruses. One of the virus, the Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is identified for the this oldest disease, is transmitted through faecal-oral route. It can survive in the enviroment for the long time because of its abundantly excretion in faeces. It is typically acquired by ingestion of faeces-contaminated food or water and direct person-to-person transmission under poor hygienic condition as well as through sexual contact (anal-oral) and blood transfusion. It mainly attacks children below the age of 9 and extremely contagious during all of infectious period.


Mastadenovirus

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Mastadenoviruses infect mammals only. They are easily visible in the electron microscope by negative staining and are composed of 252 capsomers: 240 "hexons" + 12 "pentons" at vertices of icosahedron. Penetration into human cell involves phagocytosis into phagocytic vacuoles, after which the toxic activity of the pentons is responsible for rupture of the phagocytic membrane and release of the particle into the cytoplasm. These virus can be isolated from the majority of tonsils/adenoids surgically removed, indicating latent infections.


Norovirus

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Noroviruses or Norwalk-like viruses (sometime called as SRSV: small round structured viruses) are ubiquitous but they can mainly present in stool or vomit of infected people, faecally contaminated water, nurseries, hospitals, nursing homes, restaurants, and cruise ships. Norovirus have a characteristic surface morphology formed by 32 cups or “calices” with the tips of the virus bent and have a ragged Outline. Humans are the only known reservoir for noroviruses.They are very contigious and transmitted through contact with infected individuals from one person to another.


Orthoreovirus

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'REO' is actual acronym of 'respiratory enteric orphan'. Orthoreoviruses are animal reoviruses and divided into two groups on the basis of their ability to cause syncytium formation in cell culture, one is fusogenic and second is non-fusogenic. Mammalian orthoreovirues are non-fusogenic. These viruses are transmitted through fecal-oral route and they start replicating themselves in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The outer capsid layer is removed during entry into host cells by endosomal proteases, creating intermediate subvirion particles (ISVPs). The second inner capsid that contains viral elements, is released into the cytoplasm by cellular membrane disruption where it starts its viral activities.


Poliovirus

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Polioviruses are highly contagious that attack on nervous system. Children under the age of 5 are the main victims than any other group. People with weakened immune systems hav e also a chance to get affected by Poliovirus. There are three types of infection caused by Poliovirus: Subclinical, less infective type; Non-Paralytic, produces mild symptoms buy doesn't affect central nervous system; Paralytic, the rarest and most serious form of polio produces full or partial paralysis in the patient. The virus can be spread by contaminated food or water or direct contact with another infected person through fecal matter.


Rotavirus A

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Humans are the main reservoir for Rotavirus A. It causes disease mostly in children above the age of 3 months. It is exceedingly ubiquitous and found in good ammount mostly where children spend much time such as children daycare centers. It can be isolated from faeces of person begining before the illness, fecal contaminated water, sewage, surfaces that are contacted with infected persons. Rotavirus is very contagious and spread by the contact of infected person via fecal-oral route, respiratory droplets and little evidence of airborne transmission.