Food and Water Borne Fungal Pathogens
Food is a basic necessity of humans for their survival on the Earth. Food is any substance consumed by humans which provide nutrition and strength to the body. Most of the food that we consume is either plants or their products. Besides plant, some lower organisms like aquatic or poultry animals are major source of food for us.
Any kind of contamination in food cause food-borne diseases in humans. Contamination may occur due to microorganism, improper handling of food, improperly cooked food or may occur in ready to eat food items. Water used in irrigation can also be a source of contamination of vegetables and fruits.
Bacteria and Helminths are major causative agents of food infection in humans. While number of diseases caused by fungi, virus and protozoa are less. Microorganisms like Bacteria and fungi produce toxins when they are ingested and cause mild to severe disorders in the humans. Helminths were ingested in the form of cysts or eggs, they multiply and develop into adults in intestine. There abundance in intestine cause intestinal blockage and abdominal bloating.
The conventional methods to detect food borne pathogens include there culture in nutrient media followed by various biochemical tests.
These methods are more time consuming, less specific and more laborious. So there is a need to develop a method based on molecular technology which is more quick and highly specific.
Current rapid detection methods includes ATP Bio-luminescence, Immunological detection, In-situ hybridization, bio-sensors, pyrosequencing, PCR based genotype etc. The database of unique probe and primer for food borne human pathogen (FOODPATH). This database contains 76 food borne pathogens which were responsible for causing various diseases in humans. This database contains Bacteria (26), Fungi (13), Protozoa (5), Virus (9) and Helminths (23).