Protozoan Food Pathogen

Protozoa are unicellular, motile, eukaryotic and heterotrophic microorganisms. They are bound to moist or aquatic habitat. They establish a symbiont relationship with organisms like bacteria, fungi and mammals or they are parasitic to them.
Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted through food in developing countries. The vast majority of protozoa do not harm us. But there are a few that cause disease. The main protozoa of concern are Toxoplasma, Crptospordium and Giardia in developed countries. In developing countries the main problem is with Cyclospora, Entamoeba and Sarcocytis. Like virus, they do not multiply on food. Protozoan parasite can be ingested in form of cysts through food.

Some species of protozoa are part of the normal microbial flora of animals, and live in the guts of insects and mammals, helping to break down complex food particles into simpler molecules.Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are parasitic protozoa which live in the guts of animals. Giardia lamblia is a common parasite that can cause villous atrophy, a similar kind of wasting of the gut's villi that is seen in Celiac Disease. Villous atrophy reduces gut absorption of several minerals, nutrients and fat soluble vitamins. Entamoeba histoltica is another common parasite. This nasty parasite can infect adjacent organs such as the liver where it can form cysts, abscesses and can even form pus. C. parvum possesses numerous surface glycoproteins thought to play a role in pathogenesis. Cyclospora causes a syndrome of prolonged, intermittent diarrhea associated with profound fatigue and anorexia and it infects the upper intestine.
Cryptosporidium parvum
Cryptosporidium parvum Click for Details Cryptosporidium is a microscopic and apicomplexan parasite.C. parvum is an obligate intracellular parasite, that infects both humans and livestock transmitted via highly durable oocysts in feces.Development inculde both a cyclic asexual reproduction and the production of gametes giving rise to further oocysts, which are either excreted or reinfect the host.C. Parvum oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium paravum is most commonly known for waterborne transmissionmore but recently identified as an emerging food contaminant. Several documented food-associated outbreaks have been reported in improperly pasteurized milk , chicken salad in , uncooked green onions.
Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica Click for Details Entamoeba histolytica is a anaerobic and Zoonotic parasitic protozoan it causes Amebiasis .The highest prevalence of amebiasis is in developing countries. Get tramsmitted by feces and food and water supplies, are inadequate that infects predominantly humans and other primates.Cysts are viable in water, soils and on foods.
Giardia lamblia
Giardia lamblia Click for Details Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan flagellate (Diplomonadida) that can live in the intestines of animals and people, it causes giardiasis. It is found in every region throughout the world and has become recognized as one of the most common causes of waterborne (and occasionally food-borne) illness.
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii Click for Details Toxoplasma gondii are obligate intracellular Parasites that belong to the family Sarcocystidae.T. gondii is ubiquitous and isfound around the world and considered to be a leading cause of death attributed to foodborne illness. Oftenly found in hot, humid climates and lower altitudes and occurs in a wide range of intermediate hosts that include warm­ blooded vertebrates, such as birds, carnivores, rodents, pigs, primates, and humans.
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Cyclospora cayetanensis Click for Details Cyclospora cayetanensis is a unicelluar, coccidian, microscopic parasite which causes cyclosporiasis, an intestinal disease in humans and small to be seen without a microscope. Its full name is Cyclospora cayetanensisa, and it has a life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction.Cyclosporiasis occurs in many countries, but it seems to be most common in tropical and subtropical regions. In areas where cyclosporiasis has been studied, the risk for infection is seasonal. However, no consistent pattern has been identified regarding the time of year or the environmental conditions, such as temperature or rainfall.