Viral Food Pathogen

The virus particles are 100 times smaller than a single bacteria cell. Viruses by themselves are not alive. They cannot grow or multiply on their own and need to enter a human or animal cell and take over the cell to help them multiply. These viruses may also infect bacterial cells.
They do not possess their own machinery for replication, they take over human or bacterial machinery to grow and bloom inside host's body.

In recent years, viruses have been increasingly recognized as important causes of food borne disease. They are highly resistant to heat, temperature, freezing and UV light so they can survive into the food for longer periods.
Viruses have emerged as causes of food borne disease, according to data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viruses that cause food poisoning are hepatitis A and E, norovirus, poliovirus, rota virus, adeno virus etc.
When such viruses enters and replicate in our body they produce toxins or some bi-products that accumulate within the host's cell. They are cytotoxic in nature. Hepatitis A is a virus that affects the liver for a few weeks up to several months. Norovirus has been reported to be responsible for outbreaks of severe gastrointestinal illness. About 20 million people in the U.S. become sick from these highly contagious viruses every year.
Rotavirus causes severe, watery diarrhea that can lead to dehydration. The illness occurs most often in babies and young children.
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis A virus Click for Details Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is classified with the enterovirus group of the Picornaviridae family and considered notifiable foodborne virus attributed to cause foodborne illness in many countries.hepatitis A virus: non.enveloped ; ss .RNA, packaged in a protein shell .There is only one serotype of the virus, but multiple genotypes exist.
Hepatitis E virus
Hepatitis E virus Click for Details Electron microscopy (EM) analyses show spherical particles of possible icosahedral symmetry, with indefinite surface substructure, resembling the caliciviruses.Hepatitis E is common in many parts of the world. HEV virion is a nonenveloped, spherical,ss, positive-stranded Hepevirus RNA virus. HEV is a small and structurally simple RNA animal virus. is composed entirely of viral protein and RNA.
Norovirus Click for Details Norovirus is positive sense single stranded RNA ,is the prototype of a family of unclassified small round structured viruses, which may be related to the caliciviruses. Commone illness caused by the Norovirues are viral gastroenteritis, acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis responsible to cause food poisoning, and food infection.Foods such as raw oysters, cake frosting and salads, as well as drinking water, have been implicated as a common source of viral infection in several outbreaks.According to CDC report norovirus stand in top pathogen responsible to illness and hospitaliztion .
Poliovirus Click for Details Poliovirus is a small virus that lacks a viral envelope but has a capsid that surround its, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA are transmitted by food but virulent strains of this agent are now extremely rare. Poliovirus is an error-prone enteric virus spread by the fecal-oral route, and rarely invades the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the rare instances when poliovirus invades the CNS, the resulting damage to motor neurons is striking and often permanent.
Rotavirus A
Rotavirus A Click for Details The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA surrounded by a double-shelled viral capsid. When examined by electron microscopy, the double-shelled particles resemble a wheel-like structure morphologically. Rotaviruses are classified with the Reoviridae family. They have a genome consisting of 11 double-stranded RNA segments surrounded by a distinctive two-layered protein capsid. Six serological groups have been identified, three of which (groups A, B, and C) infect humans. Rotavirus is endemic worldwide. It is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea mainly in infants and children, and accounts for about half of the cases requiring hospitalisation. In temperate areas, it occurs primarily in the winter, but in the tropics it occurs throughout the year.
Astrovirus Click for Details Under the electron microscope, astroviruses appear as small, round viruses that have surface projections resembling a five- or six-pointed star.of positive-sense single stranded RNA.hence the name Astroviridae. Astroviruses are heat resistant for short periods above 56C and survive for long periods below -20C.
Sapovirus Click for Details Sapoviruses are caliciviruses that together with the Norwalk virus.Sapovirus (SaV) is a common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and SaV outbreaks have become more frequent in recent years.SaV have been identified worldwide and human SaV strains are classified in genogroups I, II, IV and V.outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to SaV occurrence.
Adenoviruses E
Adenoviruses E Click for Details Adenoviruses are medium-sized, nonenveloped (naked) viruses composed of a nucleocapsid and a double-stranded linear DNA genome. There are 55 described serotypes in humans, which are responsible for 5 10% of upper respiratory infections in children, and many infections in adults as well.In humans, there are 55 accepted human adenovirus types (HAdV-1 to 55) in seven species (Human adenovirus A to G). Different types/serotypes are associated with different conditions:
Newcastle disease virus
Newcastle disease virus Click for Details It is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is a paramyxovirus with a bilayer lipid envelope. NDV naturally infects poultry, with different levels of pathogenicity depending on the virulence of the virus. NDV is usually not pathogenic to humans, although it may cause minor transient symptoms, such as conjunctivitis and flu-like symptoms.